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Year 2001, No 2
October
Hiroshima to New York:
ND Jayaprakash describes the most infamous terrorist crime in history
By ND Jayaprakash
From Wounded Knee to Afghanistan:
a century of US military interventions
By Zoltan Grossman
Fact Sheet on Afghanistan
Return of the Terrorist
Fact Sheet on Ariel Sharon
Falling Per Capita Availability of Foodgrains for Human Consumption in the Reform Period in India
By Utsa Patnaik
Vocabulary in Indian Arts
By KM Shrimali
Playing With Fire
Indian media in the wake of September 11
By Nalini Taneja
A Citizen's Voice
By Mohd. Anwarul Haque
The Indian State and the Madrasa
BJP's misplaced assault
By Yoginder Sikand
Naipaul & Co. and Quotes from the 'Civilised World'
Responding with Terror
By Aijaz Ahmad
A Hindutva Foreign Policy
By Prakash Karat
The Algebra of Infinite Justice
By Arundhati Roy
No Blood for Oil, Mr President!
By Sitaram Yechury
The Clash of Ignorance
By Edward W Said
  Special  
From Wounded Knee to Afghanistan:

a century of US military interventions



(revised October 8, 2001)

The following is a partial list of U.S. military interventions from 1890 to 2000. This guide does NOT include demonstration duty by military police, mobilizations of the National Guard, offshore shows of naval strength, reinforcements of embassy personnel, the use of non-Defense Department personnel (such as the Drug Enforcement Agency), military exercises, non-combat mobilizations (such as replacing postal strikers), the permanent stationing of armed forces, covert actions where the U.S. did not play a command and control role, the use of small hostage rescue units, most uses of proxy troops, U.S. piloting of foreign warplanes, foreign disaster assistance, military training and advisory programs not involving direct combat, civic action programs, and many other military activities.



Among sources used, besides news reports, are the Congressional Record (23 June 1969), 180 Landings by the U.S. Marine Corps History Division, Ege & Makhijani in Counterspy (July-Aug. 1982), and Daniel Ellsberg in Protest & Survive. "Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798-1993" by Ellen C. Collier of the Library of Congress Congressional Research Service.






SOUTH DAKOTA

1890 (-?)

Troops

300 Lakota Indians massacred at Wounded Knee.



ARGENTINA

1890

Troops

Buenos Aires interests protected.



CHILE

1891

Troops

Marines clash with nationalist rebels.



HAITI

1891

Troops

Black workers revolt on U.S.-claimed Navassa Island defeated.



IDAHO

1892

Troops

Army suppresses silver miners' strike.



HAWAII

1893 (-?)

Naval, troops

Independent kingdom overthrown, annexed.



CHICAGO

1894

Troops

Breaking of rail strike, 34 killed



NICARAGUA

1894

Troops

Month-long occupation of Bluefields.



CHINA

1894-95

Naval, troops

Marines land in Sino-Jap War.



KOREA

1894-96

Troops

Marines kept in Seoul during war.



PANAMA

1895

Troops, naval

Marines land in Colombian province.



NICARAGUA

1896

Troops

Marines land in port of Corinto.



CHINA

1898-1900

Troops / Boxer Rebellion fought by foreign armies.



PHILIPPINES

1898-1910(-?)

Naval, troops

Seized from Spain, killed

600,000 Filipinos.



CUBA

1898-1902(-?)

Naval, troops

Seized from Spain, still hold Navy base.



PUERTO RICO

1898(-?)

Naval, troops

Seized from Spain, occupation

continues.



GUAM

1898(-?)

Naval, troops / Seized from Spain, still used as base.



MINNESOTA

1898(-?)

Troops

Army battles Chippewa at Leech Lake.



NICARAGUA

1898

Troops

Marines land at port of San Juan del Sur.



SAMOA

1899(-?)

Troops

Battle over succession to throne.



NICARAGUA

1899

Troops / Marines land at port of Bluefields.



IDAHO

1899-1901

Troops / Army occupies Coeur d'Alene mining region.



OKLAHOMA

1901

Troops

Army battles Creek Indian revolt.



PANAMA

1901-14

Naval, troops

Broke off from Colombia 1903, annexed Canal Zone 1914-99.



HONDURAS

1903

Troops

Marines intervene in revolution.



DOMINICAN REP.

1903-04

Troops

U.S. interests protected in Revolution.



KOREA

1904-05

Troops

Marines land in Russo-Japanese War.



CUBA

1906-09

Troops / Marines land in democratic election.



NICARAGUA

1907

Troops

"Dollar Diplomacy" protectorate set up.



HONDURAS

1907

Troops

Marines land during war with Nicaragua.



PANAMA

1908

Troops / Marines intervene in election contest.



NICARAGUA

1910

Troops

Marines land in Bluefields and Corinto.



HONDURAS

1911

Troops / U.S. interests protected in civil war.



CHINA

1911-41

Naval, troops

Continuous occupation with flare-ups.



CUBA

1912

Troops / U.S. interests protected in Havana.



PANAMA

19l2

Troops / Marines land during heated election.



HONDURAS

19l2

Troops / Marines protect U.S. economic interests.



NICARAGUA

1912-33

Troops, bombing

20-year occupation, fought guerrillas.



MEXICO

19l3

Naval / Americans evacuated during revolution.



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

1914

Naval / Fight with rebels over Santo Domingo.



COLORADO

1914

Troops / Breaking of miners' strike by Army.



MEXICO

1914-18

Naval, troops

Series of interventions against

nationalists.



HAITI

1914-34

Troops, bombing

19-year occupation after revolts.



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

1916-24

Troops

8-year Marine occupation.



CUBA

1917-33

Troops / Military occupation, economic protectorate.



WORLD WAR I

19l7-18

Naval, troops

Ships sunk, fought Germany



RUSSIA

1918-22

Naval, troops

Five landings to fight Bolsheviks.



PANAMA

1918-20

Troops

"Police duty" during unrest after elections.



YUGOSLAVIA

1919

Troops

Marines intervene for Italy against Serbs in Dalmatia.



HONDURAS

1919

Troops

Marines land during election campaign.



GUATEMALA

1920

Troops

2-week intervention against unionists.



WEST VIRGINIA

1920-21

Troops, bombing

Army intervenes against

mineworkers.



TURKEY

1922

Troops

Fought nationalists in Smyrna (Izmir).



CHINA

1922-27

Naval, troops

Deployment during nationalist revolt.



HONDURAS

1924-25

Troops

Landed twice during election strife.



PANAMA

1925

Troops / Marines suppress general strike.



CHINA

1927-34

Troops / Marines stationed throughout the country.



EL SALVADOR

1932

Naval / Warships sent during Farabundo Marti revolt.



WASHINGTON DC

1932

Troops / Army stops WWI vet bonus protest.



WORLD WAR II

1941-45

Naval,troops, bombing, nuclear

Fought Axis for 3

years; 1st nuclear war.



DETROIT

1943

Troops



Army puts down Black rebellion.



IRAN

1946

Nuclear threat

Soviet troops told to leave north (Iranian

Azerbaijan).



YUGOSLAVIA

1946

Naval / Response to shooting-down of U.S. plane.



URUGUAY

1947

Nuclear threat

Bombers deployed as show of strength.



GREECE

1947-49

Command operation

U.S. directs extreme-right in civil war.



CHINA

1948-49

Troops

Marines evacuate Americans before Communist victory.



GERMANY

1948

Nuclear threat

Atomic-capable bombers guard Berlin Airlift.



PHILIPPINES

1948-54

Command operation

CIA directs war against Huk

Rebellion.



PUERTO RICO

1950

Command operation

Independence rebellion crushed in

Ponce.



KOREA

1950-53

Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats

U.S.& South Korea fight China & North Korea to stalemate; A-bomb threat in 1950, & vs. China in 1953. Still have bases.



IRAN

1953

Command operation

CIA overthrows democracy, installs Shah.



VIETNAM

1954

Nuclear threat

Bombs offered to French to use against siege.



GUATEMALA

1954

Command operation, bombing, nuclear threat CIA directs exile invasion after new govt nationalizes U.S. company lands; bombers based in Nicaragua.



EGYPT

1956

Nuclear threat, troops

Soviets told to keep out of Suez crisis; MArines evacuate foreigners



LEBANON

1958

Troops, naval / Marine occupation against rebels.



IRAQ

1958

Nuclear threat

Iraq warned against invading Kuwait.



CHINA

1958

Nuclear threat

China told not to move on Taiwan isles.



PANAMA

1958

Troops / Flag protests erupt into confrontation.



VIETNAM

1960-75

Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats Fought South Vietnam revolt & North Vietnam; 1-2 million killed in longest U.S. war; atomic bomb threats in 1968 and 1969.



CUBA

1961

Command operation CIA-directed exile invasion fails.



GERMANY

1961

Nuclear threat Alert during Berlin Wall crisis.



CUBA

1962

Nuclear threat, Naval

Blockade during missile crisis; near-war with USSR.



LAOS

1962

Command operation

Military buildup during guerrilla war.



PANAMA

1964

Troops / Panamanians shot for urging canal's return.



INDONESIA

1965

Command operation Million killed in CIA-assisted army coup.



DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

1965-66

Troops, bombing Marines land during election campaign.



GUATEMALA

1966-67

Command operation Green Berets intervene against rebels.



DETROIT

1967

Troops / Army battles Blacks, 43 killed.



UNITED STATES

1968

Troops / After King is shot; over 21,000 soldiers in cities.



CAMBODIA

1969-75

Bombing, troops, naval Up to 2 million killed in decade of bombing, starvation, and political chaos.



OMAN

1970

Command operation U.S. directs Iranian marine invasion.



LAOS

1971-73

Command operation, bombing U.S. directs South Vietnamese invasion; "carpet-bombs" countryside.



SOUTH DAKOTA

1973

Command operation Army directs Wounded Knee siege of Lakotas.



MIDEAST

1973

Nuclear threat World-wide alert during Mideast War.



CHILE

1973

Command operation CIA-backed coup ousts elected marxist president.



CAMBODIA

1975

Troops, bombing Gas captured ship, 28 die in copter crash.



ANGOLA

1976-92

Command operation CIA assists South African-backed rebels.



IRAN

1980

Troops, nuclear threat, aborted bombing Raid to rescue Emba-ssy hostages; 8 troops die in copter-plane crash. Soviets war-ned not to get involved in revolution.



LIBYA

1981

Naval jets Two Libyan jets shot down in maneuvers.



EL SALVADOR

1981-92

Command operation, troops Advisors, overflights aid anti-rebel war, soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash.



NICARAGUA

1981-90

Command operation, naval CIA directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbor mines against revolution.



LEBANON

1982-84

Naval, bombing, troops Marines expel PLO and back Phalangists, Navy bombs and shells Muslim and Syrian positions.



HONDURAS

1983-89

Troops / Maneuvers help build bases near borders.



GRENADA

1983-84

Troops, bombing Invasion four years after revolution.



IRAN

1984

Jets / Two Iranian jets shot down over Persian Gulf.



LIBYA

1986

Bombing, naval Air strikes to topple nationalist gov't.



BOLIVIA

1986

Troops Army assists raids on cocaine region.



IRAN

1987-88

Naval, bombing US intervenes on side of Iraq in war.



LIBYA

1989

Naval jets Two Libyan jets shot down.



VIRGIN ISLANDS

1989

Troops

St. Croix Black unrest after storm.



PHILIPPINES

1989

Jets / Air cover provided for government against coup.



PANAMA

1989-90

Troops, bombing

Nationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders arrested, 2000+ killed.



LIBERIA

1990

Troops

Foreigners evacuated during civil war.



SAUDI ARABIA

1990-91

Troops, jets Iraq countered after invading Kuwait; 540,000 troops also stationed in Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Israel.



IRAQ

1990-?

Bombing, troops, naval Blockade of Iraqi and Jordanian ports, air strikes; 200,000+ killed in invasion of Iraq and Kuwait; no-fly zone over Kurdish north, Shiite south, large-scale destruction of Iraqi military.



KUWAIT

1991

Naval, bombing, troops Kuwait royal family returned to throne.



LOS ANGELES

1992

Troops

Army, Marines deployed against anti-police uprising.



SOMALIA

1992-94

Troops, naval, bombing U.S.-led United Nations occupation during civil war; raids against one Mogadishu faction.



YUGOSLAVIA

1992-94

Naval Nato blockade of Serbia and Montenegro.



BOSNIA

1993-95

Jets, bombing No-fly zone patrolled in civil war; downed jets, bombed Serbs.



HAITI

1994-96

Troops, naval

Blockade against military government; troops restore President Aristide to office three years after coup.



CROATIA

1995

Bombing

Krajina Serb airfields attacked before Croatian offensive.



ZAIRE (CONGO)

1996-97

Troops

Marines at Rwandan Hutu refuge camps, in area where Congo revolution begins.



LIBERIA

1997

Troops

Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.



ALBANIA

1997

Troops

Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.



SUDAN

1998

Missiles

Attack on pharmaceutical plant alleged to be "terrorist" nerve gas plant.



AFGHANISTAN

1998

Missiles

Attack on former CIA training camps used by Islamic fundamentalist groups alleged to have attacked embassies.



IRAQ

1998-?

Bombing, Missiles

Four days of intensive air strikes after weapons inspectors allege Iraqi obstructions.



YUGOSLAVIA

1999-?

Bombing, Missiles

Heavy NATO air strikes after Serbia declines to withdraw from Kosovo.



YEMEN

2000

Naval

Suicide bomb attack on USS Cole.



MACEDONIA

2001

Troops

NATO troops shift and partially disarm Albanian rebels.



UNITED STATES

2001

Jets, naval

Response to hijacking attacks.



AFGHANISTAN

2001

Massive U.S. mobilization to attack Taliban, Bin Laden. War could expand to Iraq, Sudan, and beyond.

(The first bombing began on October 7, 2001. Several Afghan cities come under aerial attack. The story continues).




For more information or with comments and additions please contact:

Zoltan Grossman, 1705 Rutledge, Madison, WI 53704

Phone Fax (608)246-2256. mtn@igc.apc.org




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