BJP’s Assault on Education and Educational Institutions
By Nalini Taneja
an impression is sought to be created that the BJP is holding back its
agenda in deference to a large body of opinion in the country being
opposed to it, on the ground the BJP has been having a field day in
pushing through its programmes. It is concentrating on and going full
steam ahead on the cultural – educational front in polarising society
along communal lines. There is an attempt to Hinduise the educational
system, root out liberal and leftist influences, and to re-write history
in order to justify its anti-minority outlook. This is evident not only
from the much publicised agenda sought to be implemented at the State
Education Ministers’ Conference held in October 98 but also from the
massive text book revision undertaken by the Sangh Parivar in keeping
with this design.
of their agenda is incorporated through moral education and general
knowledge texts that concentrate on inculcating a Hindu consciousness
and ‘pride in being a Hindu’. In the Government schools in the BJP ruled
states and in the 20,000 odd Vidya Bharti schools and the shishu mandirs
all over the country, the prescribed syllabus presents Indian culture
as Hindu culture, totally denying its pluralistic character and the
contribution of the minorities to the creation of the Indian identity.
Everything Indian is shown to be of Hindu origin and the minorities
are characterised as foreigners owing their first allegiance to political
forces outside this country.
the name of ‘Indianised nationalised and spiritualised’ education there
is an attempt to polarise and divide people along religious lines by
communalising their consciousness. Through a distortion and concoction
of facts there is an effort to reconstruct history and tradition along
communal and sectarian lines. In fact it is quite clear what the agenda
paper at the Conference meant by the abrogation of the Articles 29 and
30 of the Constitution. Uma Bharti, the Union Minister of State in the
Ministry of Human Resources did not take long to pronounce that the
Kashmir problem finds its roots in the teaching pattern in the Madrasas
and that there is a need to closely monitor them.
to these books and the efforts of their ‘dedicated’ teachers lakhs of
children grow up with prejudice and hatred towards the minorities, considering
them alien, and in total ignorance of our composite and rich cultural
heritage. By wanting to make Sanskrit and the Upanishads and Vedas compulsory
in schools to the exclusion of other texts they deny not only the secular
character of our cultural heritage but also the significance of popular
cultural expression and languages in the making of Indian culture.
homogenised and predominantly Hindu picture of Indian identity these
texts present is contrary to facts and to peoples’ historical experience.
Inspite of their verbal diatribe against Macaulay, they adopt, lock
stock and barrel, the Orientalist Western British Imperialist sponsored
theory that sees Eastern societies as unique and incapable of modern
development independently. They have also conveniently appropriated
the British divide and rule paradigm of Hindus and Muslims as separate
civilisational entities that cannot survive together in peace. How much
of their ideological ammunition has its source in the most reactionary
theories of imperialist domination is a fact that should be talked about
much more and be exposed for what it represents. These theories are
asserted in the face of over whelming evidence to the contrary
massive survey project by the Anthropological Survey of India published
in the form of a series called People of India proves a number of points
which give lie to the lies of the Sangh Parivar. It shows that approximately
more than 4000-odd communities inhabit this country and their cultural
profile is rooted and shaped by their relationship with their environment
their occupational status their language, etc., primarily and that religion
falls way down in the construction of their identities. This survey
also shows that Hindus and Muslims share more than 95% characteristics
of various kinds that are common and that it is shared lives that have
given shape the diverse cultural expressions. Among other things the
studies also show that nobody today can be characterised as an original
inhabitant or a foreigner.
of such data and historical truth, the Sangh Parivar is pressing on
with its own agenda. There is a move to change the content of school
education in general as well and a review of the NCERT syllabus is an
integral part of this move. As most of us would remember there was
a concerted assault on the NCERT textbooks by the RSS backed political
groups even during the Party government in the immediate aftermath of
the Emergency. Among the books sought to be banned and consigned to
a fascist type of bonfire were the history textbooks of our most eminent
historians like Romila Thapar, RS Sharma and Bipan Chandra because they
present a secular view on history. What they did not succeed in doing
then they are trying to achieve now under the BJP Government rule. A
Review Committee has been formed for the review of syllabus with a chairman
whose only claim to fame is his landmark judgment that Hindutva is away
of life not religion. The UP State education minister says publicly
that by the next session twenty-five textbooks will have to be re-written.
The RSS has undertaken to write along communal lines the history of
every district, and has a separate Institute known as the Bharatiya
Itihas Sankalan Samiti, with 400 branches all over the country,
for coordinating and giving direction to this effort. One of the key
‘achievements’ of this Samiti is the ’cleansing’ of Christian influence
on historical chronology. The kalgana or the ’scientific Hindu
way of calculating time’ does away with the BC/AD system and works according
to the Hindu calculation of time traced from the Deva Yuga to
the present Kala Yuga! Murli Manohar Joshi is already on record
that the history and philosophy of foreign lands had prevented universities
from becoming centres of learning. It is an indication of what they
mean ‘Indianising’ education.
is sought to be combined with spirituality, in the name of which obscurantism
and chauvinism are freely allowed to masquerade as national pride. Vedic
Mathematics was introduced in the UP schools but had to be withdrawn.
The recent directives curtailing experiments on animals in laboratories
at the initiatives of Maneka Gandhi and sanctioned by the highest authorities
in some scientific establishments, if implemented with all its clauses
will set back research by decades and make next to impossible almost
implementation of the compulsory Saraswati Vandana and Vande Mataram
mandate in the Government schools in the BJP ruled states, the renaming
of towns and streets, bhajan mandalis, ‘social service’, festivals,
even sporting events, particularly cricket matches between India and
Pakistan, are transformed into lessons of popular education outside
the formal classroom. ‘Kargil’ has become the latest and most convenient
peg to hang their version of history and nationhood on as the elections
is now being used as a major media of popular education, with special
reference to the NRIs from whom they derive major funds, and now increasingly
for equipping the middle class with arguments, data, and the intellectual
resources to fulfill their leadership role in the communal bandwagon.
Land has already been earmarked and according to press reports a few
months back, permission has been obtained by the Delhi Government from
the relevant authorities, for setting up a Holocaust type of museum
on Partition which would reflect the RSS sectarian view of the tragedy.
One can imagine the consequences of this along with their programme
to ‘liberate monuments. These would in fact result in the reconstruction
and manipulation of popular memory to suit their diabolical designs.
this is reinforced by the capture of the institutions of learning and
education with the stated goal of influencing the funding and direction
of research and educational policy. The control over committees and
autonomous bodies through the strength of the State apparatus has already
resulted in the creation of institutional structures designed to give
sanction and legitimacy to the changes that they are pushing through
and to survive the life of he present BJP Government. They guarantee
the continuance of the fascist agenda even if the BJP Government is
defeated at the hustings. The battle for the minds of the Indian people
is clearly at a critical stage and the sooner the democratic movement
in this country faces this reality, the better equipped it will be to
face this onslaught on democracy –for clearly this is what it is. The
struggle for a secular –third front in the Parliament is only one dimension
of this larger struggle for the defense of democracy and peoples’ dignity.
OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND COMMITTEES
crucial institutional measures taken by the BJP government during its
has filled the Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR) with
historians notorious for their association with the VHP campaign on
Ayodhya and without any credibility in the field of history writing.
Of the twelve secular and eminent historians who if the established
practice had been followed would have remained for a second term. Not
a single one of them were permitted to continue. Among them are Prof.
Sumit Sarkar and Prof. KN Panikkar. The Member Secretary, TKV Subramaniam,
a noted historian, was not allowed to finish his term and now hardly
any secular historian remains as a Council member. Of the new faces,
three appeared on the VHP committee to argue the case for the RSS stand
on Ayodhya temple. Among others, one is an active RSS pracharak,
another one is 96 years old. The assault on ICHR is clearly aimed at
influencing the direction and funding of historical research towards
the Sangh Parivar's communal agenda. In its caretaker capacity and in
violation of all norms the BJP government now seeks to appoint a Chairperson
from among three nominees selected after they took over, who are known
advocates or sympathizers of the Hindutva campaign, two of them having
actually been the leading participants on the RSS panel to prove the
existence of a Ram mandir on the Babri Masjid site.
The Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) has been
similarly reconstituted and filled with pro RSS men whose only call
to fame is their support to the Sangh Parivar's Hindu Rashtra agenda.
The Indian Institute of Advanced Studies (IIAS) in Simla has
a new chairman and several other members of the same ideological colour,
among them Kirit Joshi, member of the Ved Vidya Pratishthan, an RSS
outfit and GC Pande, an orthodox Sanskrit scholar.
the Nehru Museum and Memorial Library, the candidature of eminent
historians like Professors Mushir ul Hasan and Madhavan Palat were brushed
aside to appoint as Director a person from the Doordarshan expected
to be softer to their designs. The institution has big funds apart from
a number of Senior Fellowships for research and scholarship, and is
an important centre for organising seminars and discussions in social
National Museum and other museums are being used by the BJP government
to propagate the Sangh Parivar’s view of Indian History and tradition,
by renaming galleries, the descriptive placards, or by virtue of choice
in selection of items displayed, and various special exhibitions organised
and curated for particular occasions.
Indian Institute of Mass Communication, which comes under the
Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, has been given a Chairman
for its Advisory/Executive Council a person of RSS affiliations.
Director of the All India Council for Technical Education has
an Advisor with RSS links.
the areas of Science and technology there is a systematic shift
in budgetary allocations to favour branches linked with military and
nuclear research and development (R&D), and to the detriment of
research and studies in the fields of agriculture, health, medicine,
and a general science education. The two favoured areas in keeping
with the ideological predilections of the Sangh Parivar have been declared
as benchmarks, which means that scientists from these branches will
be part of selection committees for recruitment in the fields of science
establishments. Scientists working in these areas have been given special
incentives in the form of two increments at all levels and a raise of
Rs. 2000/- at the higher level, which have the approval of the prime
Minister’s Office. General science education, which has little place
in the RSS scheme of an obscurantist and communal agenda for the ‘people’,
has been relegated to the back stage.
its caretaker capacity and in the face of all democratic opinion the
BJP government has appointed a new Secretary, Mr Hari Gautam, with Known
RSS links and is also making a move to appoint a new Chairperson of
the University Grants Commission (UGC). The UGC is the primary
body for higher education in the country, and it is well known that
this government has already undermined its authority and autonomy with
regard to decision-making and also completely flouted its recommendations
with regard to teachers’ salaries, promotions and working conditions.
The UGC is being systematically being used by this Govt. to privatise
and commercialise education, to encourage commercial self-financing
courses and to curtail state funding in the areas of study considered
chancellors to various universities in the country have been appointed
with the sole criteria of having a sympathiser at the helm of affairs.
Delhi University, while the BJP was holding the State Government,
all democratic norms were flouted and the functioning and role of the
statutory bodies such as the Academic Council completely undermined.
Governing Bodies of Delhi Administration and other colleges were filled
with known sympathisers of no academic achievements or interest in education
with a view to ensuring appointment of affiliated persons as Principals
for the colleges. Appointments to teaching posts were similarly ensured
through this process. These RSS filled Governing bodies were openly
used for undermining the autonomy of the University, and giving support
to corruption and goondaism on the campus. In flouting and withdrawing
many aspects of the agreement arrived at with the teachers last year,
the BJP government is devaluing education itself
Himachal Pradesh all democratic norms and conventions have been
thrown to the winds to place in vital positions persons belonging to
the RSS/BJP. All the three Universities in the state-a general
university in Simla, the university for agriculture at Palampur, for
horticulture and forestry at Solan-are now completely under the control
of the RSS cadre, from the Vice-Chancellors to the Deans of Faculties
and wardens of the hostels. Most of these appointments, including that
of the Vice Chancellor of the Horticulture University, have been made
by illegally removing the earlier incumbents, much more eminent and
competent. Qualifications are no longer the criteria. The School
Board has a new chairman in the person of Dr CL Gupta, a long time
president of the ABVP, while the chairmanship of the Board of Technical
Education has gone to Professor Dhani Ram whose sole claim to fame
is his ability to organise RSS shakhas. In this RSS drive, one of the
more coveted positions is that of the chief wardens in universities
and colleges, which makes the admissions into them of ABVP activists
that much more easier, apart from keeping an eye on the students activities
and discriminating against students with leftist associations.
the Aligarh Muslim University the BJP government, despite widespread
protests from the University community, has openly supported the erosion
of even nominal democratic rights on the campus by the Vice Chancellor.
For a long time the VC tried to block the elections for the Students
Union. Later, when a leftist was elected as President, he used his office
to brow beat the legitimate expression of students demands and protest,
dismissed from his appointment in the University the Secretary of the
Employees Union for simply delivering a speech and organising a meeting,
and has been continually harassing democratic and leftist teachers on
the campus, even suspending them on spurious charges-all of which has
found favour with the BJP govt. whose agenda is served by communal rather
than democratic avenues for expression in institutions where minorities
are in a large number.
In Haryana, the Advisory Committee on Education has been similarly
recomposed. Its Chairman, Prof. Suraj Bhan, a well-known secular historian
and archeologist who has been actively involved in the creation of material
for popular reading and has debunked the bogus claims of RSS sponsored
theories on archaeology, has been replaced by a vocal Hindutva sympathiser.
A National Elementary Education Mission (NEEM) has been constituted
with the aim of implementing and giving legitimacy to the BJP agenda
on Education in the ‘mission mode', i.e., on a war footing.
Key personnel in National Institute of Planning (NIEPA) and National
Council of Research and Training (NCERT) have been changed, all
with a view to bringing about changes through the ‘proper channels’.
The selection committee for the appointment of the Director of NIEPA
was reconstituted, and thereafter a known sympathiser of the Hindutva
lobby was appointed to the post. The appointment is crucial not only
in the context of the responsibilities involved but also in view of
the fact that more than fifteen posts remained to be filled or made
permanent in which the new director would obviously be a determinate.
A 'Review Committee' has been formed for the review of syllabus
with a chairman (former Chief Justice of India JS Verma) whose only
claim to fame is his 'landmark' judgment that Hindutva is a way of life
not religion; hence there is nothing wrong with Hindutva ideology.
a directive that makes all schools running for 10 years automatically
entitled to affiliation and recognition the BJP govt. has ensured large
transfers of state funds to RSS schools in the states of BJP
govt., especially if it can be easily shown that govt. schools are not
to newspaper reports the BJP government’s disinvestment of the public
sector has resulted in the closure of many schools run by public
the field of Adult Education as soon as the BJP government took
over an year and a half ago all publications brought out by voluntary
organisations have been stopped by simply not releasing the due
grants, with a view to replacing the organisations entrusted with this
important task. The Govt. prefers to have no publications, rather than
those with a pronounced secular character.
of an institutional structure to hand over the entire resources of the
state in fields of social welfare, particularly education, for fulfilling
a right wing agenda has been launched through the creation and govt.
sanction, during its caretaker days, to the National Reconstruction
Corps- a body of young people to be paid by the state to do precisely
those tasks which have been accomplished through unprecedented voluntarism
in the last two decades. Adult Education, lifelong learning schemes,
non-formal education and a host of employment generating schemes and
training programmes will be put into their hands. It will create a body
of paid potential black shirts with a stake in the systematic destruction
of secular networks created with diligence and commitment over the last
two decades by science groups, literacy activists and lakhs of volunteer-teachers
all over the country. They will be the new extra-constitutional authority
and muscle men of the RSS at state expense at the grassroots, at the
panchayat and district levels.
Committee of the Council for the Advancement of People’ Action and
Rural Technology (CAPART), which channelises the government
funding in rural development sector including studies on technology
development and alternatives, has been transformed into a political
appendage of the Sangh Parivar. The majority of the new nominees to
the Executive Committee and the Regional Committees are reportedly persons
and voluntary organisations connected to the RSS and the BJP and have
no specific expertise in order to fulfill their responsibilities. For
example in the north east almost every member of the regional committee
is an RSS functionary. With a notification of March 3 the General Body,
half of whose members are NGOs, was filled with active associates and
members of the RSS and the celebrated ‘ NGOs’ Swadeshi Jagran Manch
and the Akhil Bhartiya Vanvasi Kalyan Ashram. CAPART has eight national
standing committees (NSCs) which sanction and monitor projects and evolve
policies.. Since its formation in 1986, CAPART has disbursed Rs 447
crores to 6,370 organisations. All NSCs were dissolved and new ones
formed, bypassing the Director General and all the internal structures
SAFFRONISATION OF SYLLABI AND SCHOOL TEXT BOOKS
historiography may be quite old in India but the new additions reflect
greater contemporary use in dividing society along communal lines. They
are also stronger in the language and expressions used. Communal bias
is woven into school textbooks with preposterous ‘facts’ in a way that
can only have dangerous consequences for the educational standards in
the name of curriculum reform there is an attempt to rewrite textbooks
along communal lines on a scale that will submerge all secular interpretations
in school level teaching. A whole generation would grow up with their
collective memory of a shared heritage destroyed and with ideas and
information that have no basis in reality. A successful implementation
of these texts on a widespread scale will mean the triumph of unreason
as well as a tremendous and sudden deterioration in the quality of education,
where the minimum criteria of correct empirical data and a scientific
temper and reason are thrown to the winds. Our children will be little
suited to face the real world or the world of scholarship.
the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) conducted
an evaluation of school textbooks in various subjects, including those
prescribed in Vidya Bharati schools in the country. It found that many
of the Vidya Bharati textbooks were "designed to promote bigotry
and religious fanaticism in the name of inculcating knowledge of culture
in the young generation." A lot of very objectionable material
was even being utilised for instruction in schools which, "presumably,
have been accorded recognition." It reported that there were 6,000
such schools with 12 lakh children on their rolls under the tutelage
of 40,000 teachers where these books formed the core of the curriculum.
these books already form an integral portion of the curriculum in the
20,000 or more Vidya Bharati schools and Shishu Mandirs. The introduction
of these texts into the Government schools in the BJP ruled states has
massively increased the number of children who are being made victims
of this second rate and poisonous ‘knowledge’. The take over of educational
bodies from the highest levels to those determining the syllabi in schools
will carry this wave of fascist propaganda into the entire educational
process. Coupled with other forms of popular education they could change
our entire ways of looking at ourselves, and also propel our political
visions along fascist rather than democratic lines.
FROM THE HISTORY TEXTS
the history texts the old communal interpretation of history reigns
supreme. The Aryans are shown as the original inhabitants of India and
the builders of Indian civilisation and the coming of Muslims an intrusion
that shattered the imagined homogeneity of Indian diaspora. In their
imagination it was an attack of proportions that only Macaulay equalled.
The ancient period of history, especially the Mauryan and the Gupta
period, is painted as ‘Golden’ because the rulers during this time are
seen to be Hindus, and the medieval centuries as the advent of darkness,
threat to culture, and an attack on Indian civilization. The Moghul
kings, especially Aurangzeb, are painted as cruel tyrants without reference
to the medieval context in which these rulers acted. As far as these
texts are concerned the cultural integration and emergence of new forms
of cultural expression as a result of shared life, translations of religious
texts, adoption of new dance musical and religious forms, did not exist.
Bhakti and growth of national languages and literatures of the regional
languages are not seen as linked to the context of this shared life.
communal and sectarian interpretation of history also extends to the
study of the National Movement, where the Muslims are painted as the
enemies of the nation and responsible for Partition, and the Hindu communal
forces as the greatest patriots and nationalists. The conflict between
the Mughals and the Marathas and Rajputs, also feudal powers are given
the status of nationalist struggles. Shivaji and Rana Pratap are great
national heroes for their opposition to ‘Muslim power’. Similarly, K.S.
Hegdewar and M.S. Golwalkar are great heroes in the books used as part
of Sanskar Saurabh series where as Nehru does not find a mention. Among
the great men of India no Muslim or Communist finds reference, where
as the most insignificant of Hindu heroes are extolled in extravagant
terms. Those who cannot be ignored by any means are appropriated by
misrepresenting them and what they stood for, as, for example, Bhagat
Singh. It would appear that during the national movement there was just
one definition of nation and nationhood, that of the Sangh Parivar today.
The struggle for a secular nation does not exist. In these texts democracy
is deliberately confused with majoritarianism, minority rights with
communalism, modernity with British rule and oppression, British rule
with Christianity, Hinduism with nationalism. The role of the people
and popular struggles are also underplayed as unity across religions
was quite pronounced in popular struggles and they are not easily open
to a sectarian interpretation. Rationality, reason, factual correctness
and a democratic perspective are all thrown to the winds in these texts.
from these well known communal interpretations of Indian history there
re numerous references, questions, and arguments in favour of the destruction
of Babri Masjid, the presentation of the Kar Sevaks of the uninterrupted
line of ‘freedom fighters’, of Mulayam Singh Yadav as a ‘mullah’ and
murderer of Hindus. Excuses are found to reinforce all these lies not
only through history texts but also through questions in the books and
in the examinations- in Maths and General Knowledge papers example,
questions such as names of people ‘martyred’ during the siege of Babri
Masjid and the number of people murdered by the ‘mullah and murderer
of Hindus, Mulayam Singh etc.
chauvinism is carried to the extreme in these texts. In the text books
distributed in Vidya Bharti schools the map of India is shown as including
not only Pakistan and Bangladesh but also the entire region of Bhutan,
Nepal, Tibet and even parts of Myanmar (“punnya bhoomi Bharat”).
texts are being used in Shishu Mandirs and Government Schools in BJP
and Krishna took birth here to destroy evil and defend justice, religion
and Sarasvati, and god took birth here many times to make this land
pure. India is referred to as Sone ki chiriya and jagadguru(p 4 ,Gaurav
Gatha (henceforth GG), the textbook for Class 4, Sarasvati Shishu Mandir,
written in an extremely emotional and provocative style.)
land has always been seen with greedy eyes by the marauders, barbarous
invaders and oppressive rulers. This story of invasion and resistance
is our 3000-year long Gaurav Gatha. When this proud tradition actually
began is difficult to say because no books were written at that time…but
we believe that the first man was born in this land (p. 8 GG)
our ancestors these marauders were like mosquitoes and flies who were
crushed (p. 8 GG)
and Dionysis, among the earliest invaders, suffered such a defeat that
feelings of terror ran in Greece (p. 9, GG) Darius had to face such
a defeat that never could Iran raise its eyes towards India (p. 10 GG)
2200 years ago India’s trade was spread far and wide; foreign markets
were filled with goods made in India. Heaps of gems and jewels and gold
and silver filled the treasures People of the entire world used to look
to India with greedy eyes (p. 12 GG)
Nanda had so much wealth that if divided among the population, every
person would get Rs. 50 lakhs each (p. 13 GG)
army was defeated at the hands of Puru and Alexander himself had to
seek forgiveness (p., 15 GG)
came Demetrius …the preaching of ahimsa had weakened North India. The
Kshatriyas--followers of the Vedic religion were-feeling frustrated…the
ruler of Magadha was a Buddhist. So he did not come forward to fight.
But then was the country enslaved/ Did the enemy become victorious in
the birthplace of Bhagwan Rama? No, no (p. 31, GG)
destroyed the Greeks. After this the people of Greece could not attack
Bharat Later they came only as refugees. As beggars they begged for
their lives but never dared to look with proud eyes…the great man who
destroyed the Greek power from its very roots was emperor Pushyamitra.
India is proud of him even today. Every day we remember his name. (p.
advocated ahimsa. Every kind of violence came to be considered a crime.
Even hunting, sacrifices in yajnas and use of arms began to be considered
bad. It had a bad effect on the army. Cowardice slowly spread throughout
the kingdom. The state bore the burden of providing food to the Buddhist
monks. Therefore people began to become monks. Victory through arms
began to be viewed as bad, Soldiers guarding the borders became demoralised.
(p. 30, GG)
the finds of bones of horses, their toys and yajna altars, scholars
are beginning to believe that the people of the Harappa and Vedic civilisation
were the same. (High School Itihaas Bhaag (henceforth HSIBI), p. 43,
history textbook for secondary schools, Government of U. P. revised
in 1992 to suit the communal interpretations of Indian history. This
book seals with the history of India from pre- historic times to 1526.)
culture is the nucleus of Indian culture, and the Aryans were an indigenous
race. " But about the Aryans who were the builders of Bharatiya
Sanskriti in Bharat and creators of the Vedas, this view is gaining
strength among the scholars in the country that India itself was the
original home of the Aryans."(P. 48, HSIB 1.) Archaeological and
literary evidence does not support this theory.
desired to "see the entire Bharat united into one nation."(P.
77, HSIB 1) empire building is deliberately confused with nationhood.
a revised textbook three lines have been interpolated which reflect
an utter disregard for facts. These lines are"It is worth mentioning
that inspite of such a large empire, Asoka had got his edicts engraved
only in one script (Brahmi) and one language Pakti-Sanskrit). This symbolises
the national unity of the times".
entire period of Indian history from the death of Harsha till the 12th
century has been described as the Rajput kaal (p. 168).
qualities of ancient traditional self-pride, love of freedom, the feeling
of pride towards Indian culture among Rajputs confirm the view that
the Rajput race is the descendent of ancient Kshatriya families (p.
170 HSIB 1). That they had their ancestry in certain invaders is dismissed
as a conspiracy of western historians.
civilisation is referred to as Indus-Sarasvati civilisation to suit
the current ideological requirement of the Sangh Parivar that the oldest
civilisation and man was in India (most of the Mohenjodaro and Harappa
sites now being in Pakistan). pg7, question and answers book titled
Bharat Ka Itihas Ainv Sanskriti, Dr. Rajshekhar Vyas, meant
for Class 12 students in Rajasthan schools). India is the original home
of the Aryans (pg. 82, BKIAS)
reference to Indian unity, the symbols of Indian culture have been limited
to the seven rivers, seven mountain peaks and seven rivers, identified
by them as Hindu ( pg. 7, BKIAS)
have always accepted history as a significant branch of knowledge and
gave it due significance in the form of the ‘Pancham Veda’ (pg. 3,BKIAS,
Dr. Praksh Vyas, book 2)
religious factor was the predominant factor in policies and conflicts
throughout the medieval period
rule in India was a foreign rule ( the reference is to the medieval
period of Indian history when the rulers were Muslims, although factually
even this is incorrect if one takes the entire country into account)
of foreigners came during these thousands of years…but they all suffered
humiliating defeat….There were some whom we digested…when we were disunited
, we failed to recognise who were our own and who were foreigners, then
we were not able to digest them. We were not able even those who for
some compulsion had separated from us. Mughals, Pathans and Christians
are today some of these people." (Itihaas Ga Raha Hai for Class5
in Shishu Mandir schools)
spread in India solely by way of the sword. The Muslims came to India
"with the sword in one hand and the Qoran in the other"…"Numberless
Hindus were forcibly converted to Islam on the point of the sword. This
struggle for freedom became a religious war, Numerous sacrifices were
made in the name of religion. We went on winning one battle after another.
We did not let the foreign rulers settle down to rule, but we were not
able to reconvert the separated brothers to Hinduism."( Itihaas
Gaa Raha Hai)
(barbarians) came to convert people to their religion. Wherever they
went, they had a sword in their hand. Their army went like a storm in
all the four directions. Any country that came in their way was destroyed,
Houses of prayers and universities were destroyed. Libraries were burnt…religious
books were destroyed. Mothers and sisters were humiliated. Mercy and
justice were unknown to them. (p.s.52-53 GG)
second phase of the freedom struggle began with the invasion of India
by Mahmud of Ghazni (Gaurav Gatha Class 4)
Ghori killed lakhs of people, Visvanath Temple and Bhagwan Krishna’s
birth place were converted into mosques. In turn he was killed by Prithviraj
Chauhan( p.s. 67-68, GG )
Minar was constructed by Samundragupta, and its original name was Vushnu
Sthambha ( p. 73, GG)).
‘foreign’ ruler Muhammad bin Tughlak transferred his capital from Delhi
to Deogiri in South India out of fear of the Hindu kings (p. 73, GG
Peshava Madhav Rao came to the throne no one could raise his eyes. The
English, the French and the Portuguese shivered; they presented gifts
in homage in his court with their heads bowed. Delhi’s emperor was his
puppet. Moghul power had ended. Nizam and other Muslim states with bowed
heads sought his (Peshava’s ) refuge. The entire country was in a sense
independent (p. 111 GG)
to the circumstances, it (Islam) gradually assumed the form of a military
religion ( sainik dharma) and with the force of arms, with a lightening
speed it advanced and became an international religion.( p. 184, HSIB
the sword of Islam was transferred from the Caliphs to the Turks (p.
189, HSIB 1)
aim of Mahmud of Ghazni and Mohammed Ghori in coming to India, apart
from plunder was the spread of Islam in India (p.s. 190, 195, HSIB1).
imposed 50% land revenue on the Hindus. (p. 228 HSIB 1).
accepted Turkish political supremacy only under compulsion. They retained
their identity even while leading the life of insult and humiliation.
(p. 260 HSIB 1).
of the Sultans adopted a policy of religious intolerance. They committed
atrocities against Hindus, demolished idols and temples. Because of
this the Hindus had surrendered to the Sultanate but they were always
making efforts to destroy the Sultanate ( p.278 HSIB 1 )
followers of Islam in this country whether they came as traders or as
invaders-but with this country they could never establish full cultural
harmony. One basic reason for their seperateness was the basic principle
of their religion which is monotheism…there was continuous mutual struggle
between the two cultures (p. 280, HSIB 1)
Indian society during the Sultanate period was divided into two main
classes--ruling or Muslim classes and ruled or non-Muslims of whom the
Hindus were the majority) the majority of the population of the state
was Hindu but the Muslim class was patronised by rulers. Hindu was merely
the payer of taxes. Inspite of being conquered in the political field,
Hindus did not lose courage. To regain their lost independence, they
went on raising their voices from time to time. Because of this historians
have called it the "period of resistance". (p. 281, p. 283,
India the nature of the mussalman state was a religious state (p.282,
adopting jauhar vrat, women defended their religion and chastity. (p.
marriage, jauhar, sati, purdah, jadu-tona and superstition were all
due to the fear of the Muslims (p. 284 HSIB 1)
Babri Mosque was constructed after destroying a temple, which in turn
stood on the exact spot where Rama was born.( High School Itihaas Bhaag
2, p. 146. This book covers the period from invasion of Babur to recent
epithet intolerant is constantly used for Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb
Qoran was the basis for the state policy of Aurangzeb, and whatever
policy was adopted for running the Government was basically for promoting
Islam. (HSIB 2, p. 119)
of temples and schools attached to them and the building of mosques
in their place was a general policy with Aurangzeb. (HSIB 2 p. 120)
the context of the Babri Masjid at Ayodhya there are fantastic propositions
that Babar destroyed many temples before turning his attention to Ayodhya.
(pg. 118, BKIAS II,
chapter on the religious policies of the Mughal rulers is filled with
prejudices from the beginning to the end and evokes negative feelings
towards the Muslims (BKIAS II, DR Prakash Vyas)
and Rana Pratap were fighters for national liberation. All the ‘Hindu’
kings who fought for their kingdoms against the Mughals are presented
190 pages of the book deal with the history of modern India, of which
only 20 pages are devoted to the nationalist movement (HSIB 2), of which
3 pages are devoted to Dr. Hedgewar. Important nationalist leaders are
mentioned incidentally in comparison. Quit India movement has ½ page,
Jinnah is the villain.
there are 60 pages on the entry of the British and establishment of
British rule, there is nothing that would promote an understanding of
colonialism (HSIB 2)
movements find no place.
book is full of factual errors, inconsistencies, and chronological lapses.
Muslims are solely blamed for the partition of India.
RSS as an organisation is presented as central to the Freedom Movement.
Dr. Keshavrao B. Hedgewar is one of the tallest leaders of the freedom
struggle. Statements of a large number of national leaders have been
quoted in praise of the RSS.
the section dealing with the movement against the partition of Bengal
the name of Hegdewar has been added as a leader of the movement, the
other names mentioned being those of Tilak, Aurobindo Ghose, Lajpat
Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal.
the context of the civil disobedience movement there is no mention of
the Lahore Congress or Purna Swaraj.
Shishu Mandir text book is worse on all these counts, and the RSS and
its leaders are said to have removed the evils which hundreds of years
of slavery had given…this Sangathan became an object of pride for the
country ( p. 86 )
false Islam of Jinnah and the League, which resulted from the communalism
of the Muslims, was the main cause of the Partition (pgs. 346-348, BKIAS
II, Rajshekhar Vyas)
Sultan was a ruthless invader who led a mass conversion of Hindus to
Muslims and forced them to eat beef.
Mappila revolt of 1921 was basically a communal revolt, which resulted
in the mass conversion of Hindus.
interpretations and ‘facts’ on all phases of Indian history abound also
in the textbooks from school boards in Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan,
Madhya Pradesh and Himachal during BJP rule. In addition, in the textbooks
from Maharashtra, the medieval history of Maharashtra begins and ends
with Shivaji. All other historical figures exist only in reference to
him. The Vyas Committee for reviewing school textbooks in Rajasthan
has found many portions in various books objectionable and has recommended
that they be removed. A similar evaluation came also from a workshop
organised in Ahmedabad with the Gujarat textbooks in mind.
SCIENCE, SOCIAL STUDIES, SOCIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT STUDIES
from history texts, the RSS agenda and its ideological predilections
are also being pushed through texts on other social sciences.
all the political science texts Indian political thought and
nationalism are presented as synonymous with Hinduism (to make the point
that the separation of religion and politics is not viable and is contrary
to historical experience). There is a very pronounced attempt to prove
that the central core of Indian nationalism is the Hindu religion. And
it is Hinduism that holds the nation together. The quotations and references
from thinkers or nationalist leaders who are Hindu by birth are chosen/
selected with the view of creating this symbiotic relationship. Minorities
do not figure in these texts except as disturbers of national unity
and in the context of discussion of communalism. All these texts make
it a point to underline Jinnah and Muslim league as the major representations
of communalism during the freedom movement, and minority organisations
and demands as the chief causes of communalism and riots in post independent
India. There are pointed references to money coming to the Muslims from
Arab countries. The Shahbano case, reservation for Urdu in the Constitution,
the minority character of the Aligarh Muslim University and the Muslim
Personal Law are discussed from a communal standpoint.
In a textbook
for Class XI, titled Political Science - An Introduction and Indian
Political Thinkers- a chapter on Deen Dayal Upadhyay has been added.
This 1998-99 edition describes him as a person who had deep respect
for "ancient and highly sophisticated culture of India", who
envisaged an "ideal Dharmarajya" and who was upset that "while
designing the Indian Constitution, the natural and national values had
been ignored." The 20-page section highlights his belief in "Akhand
Bharat" which was all for dissolving the 1947 Partition and cites
the occasion in April 1964 when he along with Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia
conceived of a "Mahasangh" in which India and the partitioned
countries (Pakistan and Bangladesh) would be included. The political
thinkers discussed have been limited to those who are seen as Hindus
and not a single figure belonging to the minorities has been included.
Nehru too does not find a place in this text.
it is said: People of many faiths came to this country to propagate
their own faiths but they were forced to bow their heads before our
divine culture. The wave of Islam was stalled here, the Christians exercised
their full might but they failed to make India Christian, even the communists
could not mould the culture of this great country along communist lines.
This is because our culture is the most superior culture in the world.
a non-religious state there is always only pain and sorrow (dukh hi
dukh). In Ravan’s Lanka there was gold but Ramarajya could not take
birth there (pg. 244).
(Dayanand Sarasvati) gave to the country the message of a renaissance
and became an aggressive propagator of Vedic culture and Hindu revivalism
Akali Dal has been characterised as a communal and separatist group
committed to the philosophy of the pistol and the bomb, the central
basis of whose politics is terrorism and violence. This has been changed
in the new edition after the alliance in the Parliament. (Pg. 111-112,
Bharatiya Rajnitik Vyavastha (Indian Political Situation) 1995 edition,
for Class 12 in Rajasthan).
Congress and the left are presented as collaborators in communalism
in Kerala (pg. 140, BRV)
Morley –Minto reforms destroyed all possibilities for the erosion of
the caste system. They were responsible for bringing out on the field
each community against the other. They gave importance to class (sectional?)
interests above (general) interests and the minority pushed the majority
into a corner. The reforms prevented six crore 20 lakh people from joining
the freedom movement (pg. 11, Bharat Main Saimvaidhanik Vikas Aivam
Saimvidhan Ke Mooladhar (Constitutional Development in India and the
Basic Features of the Constitution), for Class 11, used in Rajasthan
to certain classes and communities, especially the Muslims, disproportionate
to their population and importance, proved to be very dangerous (pg.
forces have been used for Congress and Communist rallies (pg. 82, SVASKM).
(This is said in the context of enumerating the despotic features of
cannot be justified on grounds promoting social equality. Reservation
has caused the greatest harm to national unity and integrity (pg. 82-83).
(This is in the context of the present constitutional provision for
SC/ ST reservation).
Social studies and sociology texts have been made instruments for the
propagation and justification of backward social norms by presenting
them as intrinsic to safeguarding /protecting religion and tradition
from aliens and alien influences, identified as Muslims and Christians.
the great revivalist of Hinduism, gave strength to national unity by
establishing his four maths in the four corners of the country
(pg. 93 Samajik Adhyan (Social Studies), Book I, 1998, publication of
Rajasthan Rajya Pathya Pustak Mandal, meant for students of Class 4)
Indian culture is the creation of the Aryan civilisation. The word Arya
is a Sanskrit word, which means the most superior being. We learn of
the Aryan civilisation from the Vedas. Therefore it is also known as
Vedic civilisation (Samajik Gyan, for Class 6)
festivals of the minorities are described as religious festivals celebrated
by the respective communities in their own ways while the Hindu religious
festivals are referred to as social festivals celebrated by all Indians
irrespective of their faiths. (Chapter 11, Paryavaran Adhyan (Study
of Environment) R. R.P. P. M, for Class 3).
Muslim League was formed in 1906 by the British in collaboration with
the Muslims in order to protect Muslims interests and to ensure their
loyalty (Samajik Gyan, pg. 118, R.R.P.P.M., for Class 5)
Muslim invaders began to marry Hindu women. In order to escape this
situation and to safeguard/protect their religion and culture the Hindus
were ultimately forced to make their marriage laws rigid/strict. (Pg.
107, Sociology textbook for Class 12, used in Rajasthan)
members from one caste marry only into their own caste. This ensures
the purity of blood and prevents the blood impurities of other castes
from entering into their blood (pg. 168, Sociology text book)
marriage makes adjustment between husband and wife much easier and ensures
that they lead a happy married life. Child marriage prevents moral decline
among the youth and ensures that sexual misdemeanors do not become prevalent
among them. (Pg. 377, Sociology textbook)
reason for communal tension is the doubt as regards their patriotism
(pg. 476, Sociology textbook)
Gujarat the standard 9 text book in its latest edition calls the Muslims,
Parsees and Christians as foreigners. It also states that in most of
the states Hindus are in a minority
State board textbook
right was given to an Indian who accepted Christianity to inherit his
ancestral property (standard 8 text book, pg. 23)
accumulation of power and wealth in the hands of the priests resulted
in a perversion of the religion. Some of the priests became pleasure
loving and badly behaved (Standard 8 text book)
amendments and additions that suit the RSS ideology have also been made
in the grammar and literature texts for Classes IX, X, XI and XII in
Rajasthan. And UP. The composite cultural heritage is totally absent
in terms of content and the type of language used. The Hindutva agenda
is infused into so many of the texts used in different Hindi speaking
states that one cannot simply catalogue them.
one of the texts, "A New Collection of Poems and Literary Writings"
(Nutan Gadya Padya Sangrah--the original title in Hindi), prescribed
for Class IX, there are, among others, four articles, one each by Prof.
Rajendra Singh (Rajju Bhaiya), RSS chief; Tarun Vijay, editor of the
RSS weekly Panchajanya; K.C. Sudarshan, also an RSS ideologue; and Dr.
Jalamsingh Ravlot of the Swadeshi Jagran Manch. All four articles were
added this year.
truth (knowledge) that the earth and revolves around the sun was first
given to the world by Indian scientists thousands of years ago. The
scientists of the western world arrived at this truth only much later,
then too it was opposed by the Church (NGPS) article by Rajju Bhaiya)
has been described as essentially a Vedic nation. This has been done
on the basis of Brahmanical texts (Madhyamik Gadya Padya Sanchayan(Chapter
4, for Class 10)
words that have their origin/roots in Arabic, Persian, English, Urdu
and other foreign languages are known as foreign words, for example
table, school, college, bazaar, train, ball, kalam, station, laaltein,
kameez, dava, ameer, copy, zahar etc. (Pg. 11, Sachitra Hindi Vyakaran
considered it his prime duty to ferment trouble in every village. (
pg 59, Sunder Hindi Vyakaran Tatha Nibandh Rachna)
of India were of a religious bent of mind and led simple lives. All
kinds of invaders took advantage of this….down trodden for centuries
my Bharat is now once again regaining its pride (Pg.68, SHVTNR)
his own eyes Shivaji witnessed the atrocities of Muslims and the assault
on women (Pg. 75, SHVTNR)
Pratap has been described as an ideal husband and brave without compare(
pg. 1, Trividha, for class 9)
Pratap’s heroic deeds are the subject of a poem in the High school Hindi
syllabus. The poem Haldighati, written by Shyam Narain Pandey was banned
in 1975 as it was found to incite communal feelings.
moral science texts form the central thrust of the Hindutva education
programme. In the schools in the Vidya Bharati network, apart from the
academic content of the instruction there is a "core curriculum",
which is drawn up by the Vidya Bharati and comprises six subjects: physical
education, yoga, music, Sanskrit, moral and spiritual education and
sanskriti gyan (knowledge of culture). It is through this core
curriculum that the Hindutva agenda is primarily pushed forward.
series of booklets, under the general titles of Sanskriti Jnan Pareeksha
(Cultural Knowledge Examination) and Sanskriti Jnan Pareekhsa Prasnottari
(Cultural Knowledge Examination Questions and Answers), consist of a
series of questions and their answers, which are provided in a manner
that makes the rigour of original thinking superfluous. Students are
required to learn by rote this "catechistic series" Then there
is a series called the Sanskar Saurabh, which together with Sadachar
ki Batein, are the chief instruments for influencing impressionable
minds. By virtue of putting them into writing they translate into ‘truths’
the entire gamut of RSS folklore patiently and assiduously propagated
by the RSS shakhas and imbibed by families across generations
all over the country for decades. The concocted ‘facts’ are given added
credibility and status by exploiting the unquestioning faith that people
generally have in the written word, particularly the books of ‘learning’
which is what education and school textbooks represent to the popular
books celebrate violence and vendetta as form of justice, they inculcate
hatred and contempt for the minorities, and justify killings in the
name of defending religion. Muslims are cruel beyond compare in these
books, and anything against them is sacrifice, heroism and martyrdom.
They defend the most backward social practices of Indian societies by
presenting them as sanctified by religion and defense of honour and
self-respect. They breed irrationality, and superstition, and are inimical
to a scientific temper and the secularisation of the mind. They are
sectarian to the extreme, and religious chauvinism is their raison
d’etre. There are any number stories on religious conversions, references
to breaking of temples.
leaders and the RSS emerge as the greatest freedom fighters, capable
of sacrifice, the role of everyone else is negligible. In sections
on world religions, the Vidya Bharati catechism resorts to outright
communal propaganda and falsification of history: it claims that India
was partitioned on account of the "conspiratorial policies of the
followers of Christianity" and that Christian missionaries "are
even today engaged in fostering anti-national tendencies in Nagaland,
Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Kerala and other regions of the
November 1990 episode depicting the assault on the Babri Masjid is repeated
ad nauseum with concocted graphic details and simulated emotion
in almost all the texts. It is presented as a fulfillment of destiny
and part of the freedom movement, and the Kothari brothers are martyrs
in the long chain of struggle against foreigners and enemies of the
books are common for the whole range of affiliated schools throughout
the country. India is referred to only as Bharat in these books.
gems from the ‘Sanskrit Gyan’ texts:
Gyan texts are taught in Vidya Bharati schools and Shishu Mandirs. The
RSS sponsored agenda paper on education that the Central Government
tried to present before the Conference of the State Education Ministers
in October 1998 suggested that these and similar texts be made compulsory
for all schools.
students are tested on dubious ‘facts’ such as:
Janmabhoomi is the birthplace of Ram.
was first settled by Indians (Aryans).
adapted Valmiki’s Ramayana into an epic called Iliad.
philosophers like Herodotus and Aristophanes were influenced by the
Egyptian faith was based on Indian traditions according to Plato and
language of the Native American Indians evolved from ancient Indian
cow is the mother of us all, in whose body Gods are believed to reside.
Ayurveda is the finest medical system of the world, and it naturally
evolved in India
Christ roamed the Himalayas and drew his ideas from Hinduism.
God Jagdeeshwar, father of this world, give me this quality, I may be
born worthy to serve the Hindu, die in the cause of the Hindu. If I
fail to give my life for the Hindu let me burn in hell. These are the
lines of a poem (Pg. 48, Sanskar Saurabh, Part 2, meant for Class 4)
Guru Teg Bahadur’s staunch defense of his faith the Emperor (Aurangzeb)
grew red with anger. This was the same Aurangzeb who had Matidas cut
through with a saw, Bhai Dayaldas thrown into a vessel of boiling hot
oil, and Satidas wrapped in cotton and burnt alive …Even in the last
moments of his supreme sacrifice his pride in being a Hindu shone clearly
on his face (in the context of the story of Guru Teg Bahadur’s ‘martyrdom’,
Pg. 49-50, SS 2)
stories Vir Balak Badal, Balidan Mein Jeet Kiski, Vir Balak Chatrasal
promote hatred and strengthen all the prejudices against Muslims. They
liberally contain sentences such as ‘ If you accept Islam your life
may be spared’ or ‘The Muslim leader said we have come here to destroy
temples’ (Pg. 57-61, SS, 2)
student is asked to draw the picture of Akhand Bharat (pg. 11, SS Part
is presented as a Rajput tradition that we should be proud of (Chapter
28, SS, Book 3, for Class 5)
Guru Arjun Dev’s refusal to accept Islam Jahangir had a furnace constructed
next to the river Ravi, and a vessel filled with sand placed on it,
after which he ordered a fire to be lit. Guru Arjun Dev was then called
and asked to sit on the hot vessel (pg. 72, SS, 3)
exists, has culture, learning, civilisation, religion, good deeds as
long as this Hindu jati survives, remains dominant…(lines from a poem,
pg. 77, SS, 3)
are one, our culture is one, our tradition is one, our life-current
is one, and we have but one history. We have to gain self-knowledge,
and on the basis of self confidence, manliness and daring, create for
society a monumental national man through the medium of traditional
ideology of Indian culture…This view of Golwalkar opposing the pluralistic
character of Indian culture and tradition is strongly put forward. (Pg.
7, SS, Book 4, for Class 6)
is because we are the children of Manu that we are known as manushya
or manav (human). This is claimed in a tale of blind faith and
superstition. (Manu Aur Manav, Chapter 3, SS, 4)
Muslim butchers are the killers of cows…The Hindus who killed them are
to be venerated, their only fault being that they did it while they
were asleep (Pg. 57, SS, 4)
is a description of Hegdewar unfurling the saffron flag on a British
building and it is said that the organised strength of the Hindus that
we witness today is the result of his sacrifice and strong commitment
(Pg. 64, SS, 4)
Muslim children abused Durga Bhavani. They also falsely accused Haqeeqat
Rai, and a maulvi forced him to accept Islam. He (Haqeeqat Rai) said
that one has to die just once and what better cause to die for than
one’s religion. For this his head was severed from his body, and he
became a martyr on the altar of religion and gained immortality. (Pg.
69-70, SS, 4)
2, 1990 (the day of assault on the Babri Masjid) is a moment of history
the remembrance of which brings tears to every eye…on which the bugle
of victory sounded…(pg. 70-71, SS, 4)
said to Sambhaji “Accept Islam and your life will be spared and your
kingdom returned to you”. To which Sambhaji replied “Religion is dearer
than life or kingdom. I am born a Hindu; I will die a Hindu. Aurangzeb
ordered, “with a pair of burning tongs tear open every piece of flesh
from this kafir” (Pg. 25, SS, 4). Such graphic sentences abound in a
chapter on this piece of ‘history’ from which a moral is to be derived,
and such chapters abound through out the book, and in fact the entire
Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh are shown
as parts of India once and the student is urged to pray to a picture
of this Akhand Bharat and to pledge that he will once again achieve
the same shape for our country. (Pg, 31-32, SS,4) there is a poem with
the same sentiment in the book.
consider plants as inanimate while the Hindus consider them as animate
and to have life (Pg. 45, SS, 4)
worldview, thought, values and behaviour of the Hindus is most superior
in this world (chapter 21, SS, 4)
our lives we should accept only the Swadeshi religion, Swadeshi culture
and swadeshi goods, celebrate our birthdays according to the Indian
tradition...yes for the defense of the country it would not be a crime
to buy Russian Migs…(Pg. 52, SS, 4)
is the most ancient nation in the world. Our original ancestors Manu
and Shatrughan gave life to this earth…Indian Ocean is referred to as
Hindu Mahasagar( pg. 1, Akhil Bharatiya Sanskriti-Gyan Pariksha Prashnotri,
ed. Vidya Bharti, for Class 8)
real name of Lucknow is Laxmanpuri and it was made into a habitation
by Laxman (pg. 7, ABSGPP)
refusing to accept Islam Banda Bairagi had the heart of his son thrust
down his throat (Pg. 9)…The Aryan civilisation is the oldest in the
world (Pg. 11,ABSGPP)
Mekhla, Tilak, Mala, Dand, Saffron clothes, are symbols of Indian attire.
Educational reform, a cultural campaign, and doing away with the legal
obstacles that prevent its growth are very necessary today (Pg. 13,
are 8 questions just on Rama janambhoomi in the context of which there
are answers such as-there were 78 battles fought for the rama janam
bhoomi,around three and a half lakh people were martyred in its cause.
Specific dates of the locks to the place being opened, the date when
kar seva began, the date of the assault, details of the Kothari brothers
etc. are provided and students are asked to remember them as possible
exam questions. (Pg. 14, ABSGPP)
Hindu belief s are characterised as a Dharma (religion, way of life)
while the Sikhism, Christianity, Islam are described as sects. (Pg.
ancestors established national unity on a permanent basis by building
Shiv Mandirs and Shivlings (Pg. 20 ABSGPP)
culture is one. It is also known as Hindu culture. Everybody’s heritage,
tradition, and belief are one. Everybody celebrates Holi, Divali and
Dussehra together. The same mantras are recited on marriages and other
occasions. Our cultural symbols, identity marks are the same. The cow,
Ganga, Gayatri Mantra and Gita are revered by all equally. All believe
in rebirth and karma , and everyone equally pays respect to sadhus and
sanyasis (Pg. 11, Sadachar ki Batein, for Class9)
the builders of Indian culture have been included Sri Krishna (Chapter
is not an independent language. It is Hindi written in a different (Arabic)
script (Pg. 65, SKB)
symbols are identified as and confined to the lotus, gayatri mantra,
natraj,ganga, gita, sun, swastika, etc
It is almost
nine lakh years since ram stepped on this holy Arya land and even today
his reign is remembered as one of happiness, prosperity and peace (Pg.29,
Dharma shiksha, for Class 6)
Krishna is referred to as a nationalist (Pg. 65, RI)
first took birth in Tibet, originally a part of Bharat. All beings were
Arya beings. It is from there that they spread out into the fields.
It is now 179 million crore, 19 lakh, 59 thousand, 84 years since man
stepped on this earth (Pg.67, RI)
Saraswati would have recovered from his poison had a Muslim doctor and
then an Englishman not treated him first (Pg. 56, RI)
The propagation of an unscientific, chauvinist
and obscurantist worldview is not confined to social science teaching.
The kind of havoc that these right wing fascist Hindutva forces can
play with young minds pervades their books on science and mathematics
as well. 'Vedic mathematics ' is not something being propagated simply
'out there' in RSS shakhas. In 1991 all the four BJP ruled states i.e.,
Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh, introduced
Vedic Mathematics (VM) into the school syllabus and intended to do the
same in the syllabi of engineering colleges and polytechnics. While
they were forced to withdraw it from the government schools, the teaching
of VM continues elsewhere, and attempts are being made to reintroduce
it again. The source of this VM obsession is an old book penned by late
Sri Bharathi Krishna Tirthaji Maharaja, Sankaracharya of Govardhana
Matha, Puri., published in 1965.
Swami's book became the focus of a National Workshop on Vedic Mathematics
held at Jaipur in March 1988 by the Rashtriya Veda Vidya Pratishthan
and various other Government bodies and universities. The proceedings
were published as issues in Vedic Mathematics (Khare, 1991). The seminar
enjoyed the official patronage of the Ministry of Human Resource Development
of this mathamatics is the assertion that “Our ancient Indian Vedic
lore should be all round complete and perfect and able to throw the
fullest necessary light on all matters which any aspiring seeker after
knowledge can possibly seek to be enlightened on." And that exceedingly
tough mathematical problems can be easily and readily solved with the
help of these ultra-easy Vedic Sutras...contained in the Parisishta
(the Appendix-portion) of the Atharvaveda in a few simple steps and
by methods which can be conscientiously described as mere mental arithmetic."
The superiority of “Hindu” over “Western methods is constantly asserted.
NCERT in its review of textbooks in 1996 found the school texts for
maths, based on these formulas, to be absolutely preposterous, and recommended
their complete withdrawal from the educational scene.
IN SERVICE OF HINDUTVA
the launch of the Hindutva movement on Ramajanam bhoomi and the claim
on Babri Masjid and numerous other medieval monuments built by Muslims,
professional archaeologists and historians have been mobilized by the
RSS for the falsification of evidence related to medieval monuments
and ancient archaeological sites. For decades a so called historian
by the name of PN Oak has been writing that the Taj Mahal is really
Tej Mahale and so on, claiming Hindu ancestry and architectural claim
to many medieval monuments. But it is with this new campaign that this
falsification has been directly linked with communal riots and anti
most blatant examples pertain to the Babri Masjid, the Somnath temple
and the Kasi Visvanath temples In the case of Ayodhya it is ignored
that it has a composite heritage, that Buddhism had flourished there
and so on. Despite the convincing refutation of these claims they continue
to persist with these lies not merely in their propaganda material but
also in school textbooks.
of these falsifications are:
has always been a Hindu city and it is the birthplace of Ram.
Babri Masjid was built by Babar after destroying an existing Ram temple.
Indus civilization (Mohenjodaro and Harappa) is Aryan civilization and
that remains of the horse, identified with the Aryans have been found
these sites are now in Pakistan therefore it is claimed that the real
big site is in India collectively known as Sindhu Saraswati civilization
Indus valley script is claimed as a kind of folk Sanskrit
bhakti and Krishna Bhakti have always been the dominant form of worship
in the northern regions, and exhibits have been selectively chosen for
museums to prove this claim.
bhakti movement is shown to have derived from the expression of protest
against the atrocities of Muslims.
Indo Gangetic plain has been the cradle of civilization because of its
special essence of association with the holy Ganges, rather than one
of the many settlements and civilizations associated with the general
proximity to water and other resources.
this is accompanied by an attack on and claims over places of worship
where people of different religions converge to worship together in
common ways, by showing them as sites of Hindu deities originally.
about minorities aimed at evoking hatred against them, which originated
in the RSS shakhas and spilled over to become common sense and roadside
history, have been reinfused into the texts as facts and knowledge.
The Muslims as inherently cruel, whose raison d’etre is jihad, the each
one marry four and have twenty five children, dedicated through history
to breaking temples and forcible conversions abound and are recurring
images. Their nationality is questioned, as is their loyalty. The community
itself is presented as narrow-minded, sectarian, exclusionist in contrast
to the Hinduism and the hundred flowers blooming image. Semitic itself
is a word of abuse, and the student can in no way be informed of the
diversity within Islamic tradition, the pluralistic architectural and
general cultural traditions among them, or their rootedness in their
regional environment and language and cultural expression-a feature
that the ‘People of India’ project survey clearly demonstrates. One
need not mention here what RSS and other member outfits of Sangh Parivar
have done to Christians recently. Their long-carried propaganda against
Christianity is no less vicious either.
RSS worldview on family and women are clearly reflected in the school
texts. It comes out through specific statements in social science texts
or stories in the moral science education series, with reference to
backward practices prevalent in our society such as sati and child marriage,
or through themes that have a bearing on women, for example significance
of rituals and tradition. Inequality for women is sanctified in the
name of religion and tradition, and preference for women to remain at
home is justified on grounds of self-respect, honour and defense of
tradition. Child marriage, casteism, racism, sati, and opposition to
widow remarriage are shown as intrinsic to the Hindu tradition and Hindu
tradition to be in consonance with nature. The Brahmanical social norms
have a natural basis and are superior for being derived from the Vedas
and the Aryan origin, and Manu is the last word in interpreting them.
Manu’s status is unquestioned on grounds of the ‘fact’ that he is the
first human on this earth, who gave birth to life, and the word human
(manav or manushya) derives from him.
primary role of women literally is as breeders and nurturers of society
and family. There is a measured call to women, reminiscent of fascism,
in the images of Durga and Kali, which become identified in these texts,
with the ire against those categorized as enemies of the Hindu religion,
and by extension of the nation. In an entire book, discussing the great
women who need to be emulated, we have figures like Jhansi ki Rani shown
as fighting for the Hindu nation, but primarily the role models are
Sita and Savitri, the ideal wives. This is carried to the extreme in
the story chosen on a rishi and his wife, where she combines her skills
in efficient home keeping (which the state education ministers conference
sought to make compulsory for women) with remaining literally a shadow
not heard or noticed.
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh has always considered its schools to be
an important component of the political, ideological and social agenda
that they are engaged in, and efforts in this direction have spread
far and wide over the last 50 years. The Vidya Bharati Akhil Bharatiya
Siksha Sansthan was established in 1978 with the objective of providing
a coherent organisational setting for this work.
one hurdle they have encountered in this endeavour is the inadequacy
of governmental recognition and support, which they have tried to get
over through a new directive of the present BJP government. The government
has decided that the system of “licences” is done away with and all
schools running for over ten years are automatically given recognition.
In UP and other states where they have their own government they have
also managed to transfer substantial funds for these schools under the
pretext that these are among the schools which are running well, while
the government schools can easily be shown to be inadequate. This spell
of BJP rule has therefore meant a great increase in the affectivity
of RSS affiliated schools. The conference of State Education Ministers
and Secretaries held by Murli Manohar Joshi, Minister MHRD also aimed
at providing governmental sanction to the activities of the Vidya Bharati
and carrying its agenda into the Government schools.
the organisation runs 14,000 schools at the nursery, primary and secondary
levels and has over 18 lakh pupils under its tutelage. These schools
are run in all States except Mizoram, and they employ over 80,000 teachers.
Of these about 5,000 are recognised by and affiliated to the Central
Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or the respective State Education
Boards. A large number of these are in States where the Bharatiya Janata
Party has remained in power. The schools themselves are known by a variety
of names, such as Saraswati Shishu Mandir, Bharatiya Vidya
Niketan, Gita Vidyalaya and Saraswati Bal Vidyalaya.
Their educational boards too have a variety of names such as Shiksha
Samiti, Shiksha Vikas Samiti (Education Development Council) and
Sarv Hitkari Shiksha Samiti (Education Council for Universal
Benefit), Vananchal Shiksha Samiti. Many of the schools
come under the ambit of autonomous trusts or dominant caste groups and
run by industrialists. Many are affiliated to state education boards.
Affiliation to State education boards is a crucial element of these
schools' popular appeal and the curriculum followed here conforms to
the one prescribed by the State board. The core of the ideological programme
is therefore carried out through extra-curricular activities.
are given special training in the Hindu ethos and way of life. The schools
have a system of maintaining a record of the day-to-day activities of
each student, especially regarding the progress or lack of it in the
core curriculum. For girl students there is emphasis on home keeping
as well. All schools typically have a prayer hall with idols of Hindu
deities These schools observe Teachers' Day not on September 5, the
birth anniversary of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, but on July 25, which is
claimed to be the birth anniversary of the sage Vyasa. They observe
Children's Day not on November 14, Jawaharlal Nehru's birth anniversary,
but on Krishna Jayanti. Teachers are advised to visit the parents of
the students once a month. Publications of the RSS are often mailed
to all the parents. There is emphasis on reaching out to tribal and
backward regions to counter the effect of Christian missionaries. Women
are involved in a big way in the school network throughout the country.
The main organisers of the schools are invariably RSS pracharaks
committed to the Hindutva cause.
Vidya Bharati controls 60 colleges, which offer graduate and
post-graduate education, and 25 other institutions of higher education.
The organisation also runs two teacher-training colleges, in Jaipur
RSS had in 1969 also formed the Bharatiya Shikshan Mandal (BSM),
essentially an organisation of teachers belonging to the RSS, which
focussed its attention on evolving a "Hindutva curriculum".
According to an RSS publication, the BSM's objective was to "infuse
a Bharatiya content to the educational system". It is the teachers
belonging to this organisation who drew up the syllabi for Classes I
to X on moral education, which is uniform, and compulsory in all RSS
addition to these the RSS has sponsored the Indian History and Culture
Society to counter the Indian History Congress an academic body
that has staunchly defended secularism and democracy in this country.
It has taken over the Indian Archaeology congress, forcing secular historians
to form a separate organisation called the ASHA (an association of secular
historians and archaeologists). The RSS linked Bharatiya Itihas
Samiti is aimed at rewriting along communal lines the history
of every district. The Bharatiya Vichar Kendra, the bowdhik
vibhag of the RSS is, in their own words, trying to evolve a team
of historians to be trained in the collection, evaluation, corelation
and presentation of facts in keeping with the world view that history
is a search for realisation of the divinity i.e. from the bharatiya
point of view. All these organisations feed into the material produced
strong and committed protests the BJP Government was forced to withdraw
its saffron agenda on education at the State Education Ministers’ Conference
held on October 22, 1998. The controversial document to be made the
basis of discussion was prepared by Vidya Bharati, an RSS front organisation.
In the name of making education at all levels ‘Indianised, Nationalised,
Spiritualised’, the Government attempted to push through a fascist and
right–wing thrust into education.
right–wing thrust involves changes in content as well as the structure
of education through the infusion of religious fundamentalism in school
textbooks and through commitment to the globalisation agenda in education.
recommendations that involve changes in the content of education include:
The curriculum from the primary to the highest level, even the vocational
courses, should incorporate “the essentials of Indian culture”. This
should form 10 to 25 percent of the syllabus.
Although no differentiation would be made in the curriculum for boys
and girls at the primary stage, at the later stages the curriculum for
girls should include “training in home keeping.’’
A comprehensive programme for mother tongue as a medium of instruction
at all stages of education should be launched.
In view of its unique contribution to cultural unity and ancient wisdom,
Sanskrit may be made a compulsory subject from class 3 to class 10.
Moral and spiritual education should be introduced at all stages in
all schools and the universities for inculcation of ‘national character
and desirable social and national values identified by the Sangh Parivar
as Hindu values)
Sanskrit vandana and Vande Mataram should be made compulsory in all
Curriculum should be enriched through its indigenisation (identified
again as saffronisation).
Sanskrit universities should be established in four zones of the country.
Already the budget for this has been sanctioned, while many other branches
of study are starved for funds.
course on Indian (read Hindu philosophy) in all higher education programmes,
especially vocational courses should be provided.
Upanishads and the Vedas should find due place in the curriculum from
primary to the higher level courses.
recommendations that promote changes in structure include:
to higher education should not be virtually unrestricted as at present.
Changing the mass character of higher education will not only raise
academic standards but also lead to substantial saving.
education should be given through the distance mode.
initiative for education should lie with the community and not with
new educational institutions started by the registered organisations/societies
running the educational educational institutions for the last ten years
should be automatically recognised and affiliated to the Government
or semi- Government organisations controlling the educational systems
at the states or the center. The system of ‘ permit ‘ and ‘licence’
(affiliation) in education should be abolished at the earliest to facilitate
the recognition of the Vidya bharati and RSS schools which have mushroomed
all over the country in the last decade).
29 and 30 dealing with the rights of the minorities to establish educational
institutions should be amended. In order ‘to avoid tension” this special
provision should be done away with.
Golwalkar in his own words
recently held State Education Minister's Conference in Delhi has finally
brought into the open the no-longer hidden agenda of the Sangh Parivar.
Anybody who has read Savarkar and Golwalkar will know that the RSS has
from its inception in 1925 set itself the goal of transforming the Republic
of India into a Manuvadi Hindu Rashtra. Golwalkar's unashamed praises
of Hitler and of the latter's racist (Aryan) pogroms against the non-Aryan
Jews in We, Our Nationhood Defined remain significantly unrepudiated
by the Sangh Parivar to this day. We quote Golwalkar:
race pride has now become the topic of the day. To keep up the purity
of the race and its culture, Germany shocked the world by her purging
the country of the semitic races - the Jews. Race pride at its highest
has been manifested here. Germany has also shown how well-nigh impossible
it is for races and cultures, having differences going to the root,
to be assimilated into one united whole, a god lesson for us in Hindustan
to learn and profit by."(p.27)
lesson is explicitly elaborated upon by Golwalkar:
this standpoint sanctioned by the experience of shrewd old nations;
the non-Hindu peoples in Hindusthan must either adopt the Hindu culture
and language, must learn to respect and hold in reverence Hindu religion,
must entertain no idea but those of glorification of the Hindu race
and culture, i.e. they must not only give up their attitude of intolerance
and ungratefulness towards this land and its age-long traditions, but
must also cultivate the positive attitude of love and devotion instead;
in one word, they must cease to be foreigners or may stay in the country
wholly subordinated to the Hindu nation claiming nothing, deserving
no privileges, far less any preferential treatment, not even citizens'
crudely exclusionist and coercive agenda hardly requires much explication.
What is clear from the above is that:
In the RSS view races and cultures (Hindu, Muslim, Christian) which
are divergent in creed and religious practice cannot be "assimilated
into one united whole." We recall that the poition taken here is
a loyal endorsement of colonial and imperialist views on the "Hindu-Muslim"
Contrary to the pretence now being propagated that Hindutva is a "way
of life" (so denominated by Retd. Justice J S Verma of the Supreme
Court, Golwalkar clearly speaks of the "Hindu religion," and
ordains upon non-Hindus to learn the "glorification of the Hindu
race and culture."
While preaching "tolerance" to what Golawlkar considers "foreign"
races in India, the intolerant threat is made explicit: should they
refuse to fall in line, they must remain "subordinated to the Hindu
nation" and lose even "citizen's rights."
of the fact that Christians settled in India (52 AD) some seven hundred
years before Adi Shankaracharya was born, and that Muslims had made
Malabar their home a century before, how does the Aryan Golwalkar look
upon the matter? We quote:
and Christians "are born in this land, no doubt. But are they true
to its salt? Are they grateful towards this land which has brought them
up? Do they feel that they are the children of this land, its traditions
and to serve it is their great good fortune? Do they feel it a duty
to serve it? No. Together with the change in their faith, gone are the
spirit of love and devotion for their nation" (italics original,
Bunch of Thoughts, pp.127-128)
that makes it understandable as to why the RSS flying in the face of
long-established historical truth, needs to propagate that the Aryans,
after all, never came from anywhere but were original inhabitants of
Hindusthans. Only such a construction can then render everybidy else
it any surprise then that Golwalkar actually raised objections when
Havildar Abdul Hameed and the Kalor(???) brothers were honoured for
their supreme patriotism and gallantry during the Indo-Pak conflict
of 1965 (Swatantra Bharat, Lucknow, December 24, 1965).
BJP notion of the Indian nation, of Indian society, culture and tradition
has been most effectively challenged by the data published by the Anthropological
Survey of India (ASI) in a series of publications titled collectively
as the Peoples of India. This data is the result of a detailed and complex
survey carried out, analysed and reported upon by a specialised team
of 500 trained scholars of whom 284 belonged to the ASI and 216 belonged
to various universities, research organisations spread over the country.
It was headed and coordinated by KS Singh the then Director of the organisation,
and a scholar of great repute.
survey was conducted mostly by anthropologists, particularly social
anthropologists, although there were also some scholars from the allied
fields of linguistics, psychology,, ecology, bio-chemistry within ASI
and a smaller number of historians, sociologists and political scientists
as well who adopted the methodology derived through study and discussion.
They were all scholars with grassroots knowledge of the communities
studied by them.
project covered a period of almost a decade, from 1985 to the publication
of the first introductory volume in 1992. The methodology adopted for
the study was such as to minimise arbitrariness. Its complexity and
thoroughness is apparent from the fact that 91 cultural zones were identified.
As many as 4258 communities have been covered in a single culture zone
over the states, 331 communities have been studied in two culture zones
and 45 communities have been covered in more than two culture zones.
The data have been collected from 421 districts. Of them 3972 communities
have been studied in one district, 512 have been covered in two districts
and 151 in more than two districts. Sometimes as many as 1807 communities
have been covered in a single village, 783 have been studied in two
villages and 475 communities in more than two villages. Similarly, 1794
communities have been investigated in one city/town, whereas, 393 and
182 communities have been studied in two or more than two cities/towns
respectively. The settlements and the communities are evenly distributed
across the country. The total number of communities identified, after
rigorous criteria of categorisation, located and studied, was 4635.
The definition and identification accounted for how the communities
perceived themselves, how they were perceived of by others in various
ways, their present and changing profile in both cases.. Not only are
the changes covered, but the linkages between different communities
have also been mentioned and dealt with.
project has given real teeth to the political truth of unity in diversity
that we talk so much about. And in the precise manner in which it has
defined and given content to this truth it has also challenged every
dogma that the Sangh Parivar has been propagating for so long. The conclusions
of this valuable study are the following:
a people we do not constitute a single homogenous community. We are
one of the most diverse people in the world. There are 4635 identifiable
communities in this country, diverse in biological traits, dress language,
forms of worship, occupation, food habits and kinship patterns. It is
all these communities who in their essential ways of life, express our
national popular life.
body who has inhabited this land for a long time is an Indian. Nobody
is a ‘foreigner’ in this country and there is no pure Aryan. Most Indian
communities have a mixed ancestry, and it is today impossible to separate
our roots. Indian roots derive from a mixed ancestry that includes the
Proto-australoid, Paleo-mediterranean, Caucasian, Negroid, Mongoloid.
The racial components that have gone into making the Indian peoples
are the Aryan, Greek, Hun, Arab, Turk, African, Mongol, European. These
have got so intertwined that none of them can be found in their pure
form in India today.
and morphological traits within some communities vary more than those
between communities. Homogeneity is along the lines of region, not caste
or religion. It has been scientifically disproved that upper and lower
castes have a different racial ancestry. For example, Tamil Brahmans
have little similarity of Racial traits with Brahmins in the North--say,
a Kashmiri Pandit. The Brahmans and people of the lowest caste in most
regions show remarkable homogeneity in this respect. Many segments of
the Muslim population do not show any component that can be called migratory.
They have descended mainly from the local population.
are few communities in India, which do not consider themselves as migrants
or "outsiders". Every community recalls its migration in its
folklore, history and collective memory. All accepted the regional ethos
of the area that they settled in, and contributed to its local traditions.
Even invaders became migrants eventually.
culture has gained many of its elements from migrations.
settlers professing Islam actually settled here earlier than those today
is an important source of diversity and unity. There are as many as
325 languages and 25 scripts in use, deriving from various linguistic
families--the Indo-Aryan, Tibeto-Burman, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic,
Andamanese, Semitic, Indo-Iranian, Sino-Tibetan, Indo-European, apart
from thousands of dialects. At least 65% of the communities are bi-lingual,
most tribal communities are tri-lingual. The numerous mother tongues
are important instruments of cultural expression and preservation of
diversity. Language contact through biligualism is a major vehicle for
social and cultural inter-action.
of the Indian communities are rooted in their resources. The lives and
livelihood, the occupations, dress patterns, the songs and hut settlements
of the different communities cannot be really separated from their landscape,
climate and occupations deriving from their resources. Experts say,
"rootedness in the eco-cultural zone is an outstanding characteristic
of our communities, no matter what religious label attaches to them".
Even the migrants seek to identify themselves with their local environment
except in the matter of languages they speak at home or in marriages.
3% of the communities derive their names from religious sects, while
71.77% live within a single regional or linguistic boundary and are
rooted in its ethos. Those in Kerala and Lakshadweep share a great number
of traits, those in Kerala and Punjab do not.
of the communities derive their names from the traditional occupations
they pursue. Say, Bhuiyar (peasant), Alvan (salt maker), Churihar (bangle-maker),
Lohar (blacksmith), Buna (weaver), Chitrakar (scroll-painter), and also
gaddis, gujjars, julahas, dhobis, sapera, nai, etc. etc. 14% have their
names associated with their environment i.e. montains, plains rivers
etc. 14% from their places of origin, such as Gond, Alhuwalia, Kanpuria,
Chamoli, Arandan, Shimong.
categories are also based on occupations, and cut across religion. Many
surnames derive from occupations pursued, offices traditionally held,
and original villages, cutting across community boundaries and region.
Singh, Acharya, Patel, Naik, Prasad, Gupta, Sharma, Khan are examples.
cultural expression cuts across religion. 775 traits have been identified
by experts--relating to ecology, settlement, identity, food habits,
marriage patterns, social customs, social organisation, economy, and
occupation, linkages, and impact of change and development, which reveal
a sharing of traits across religious categories. Hindus share 96.77%
traits with Muslims, 91.19% with Buddhists, 88.99% with Sikhs, 77.46%
with Jains. Muslims share 91.18% traits with Buddhists, 89.95% with
Sikhs. Jains share 81.34% traits with Buddhists. The Scheduled Tribes
share 96.61% traits with OBCs, 95.82% with Muslims, 91.69% with Buddhists,
91.29% with Scheduled Castes, 88.20% with Sikhs.
of identification by different communities are mainly non-religious.
In dispensing their dead, 3059 communities cremate them. As many as
2386 bury them. Many communities follow both practices. So is the case
with many marriage symbols, food habits, dress, dance and musical forms.
Clans bearing names of animals, plants or inanimate objects cut across
religions, language, region etc.
communities in India have not remained isolated. They have interacted
with their physical and social environment and with each other, in conflict
and a give and take through centuries of shared life and struggles.
This has given form and content to our diversity and unity, and is the
best guarantee of our unity in diversity.
of India: An Introduction
by KS Singh is the introductory volume to the monumental series produced
by the Anthropological Survey of India. The introductory volume has
been published on behalf of ASI by Seagull Books, 26 Circus Avenue,
Calcutta 700 017
Teachers’ front (DTF), Janvadi Lekhak Sangh (Rajasthan), Frontline